The following resources highlight contemporary examples of Māori developing urban papakāinga on ancestral whenua.
Papakāinga may be described as Māori living together communally on ancestral whenua. Shared whakapapa to place and each other provides the bonds that tie together the members of a papakāinga.
Traditionally papakāinga comprised multiple dwellings and communal facilities, and were commonly sited around resources and/or places of importance. In a contemporary sense, papakāinga provide Māori with opportunity to live according to that group’s social and cultural values, which may not be provided for through western models of housing and tenure.
Papakāinga developments can create opportunities to provide affordable, secure housing for whanau and hapū on ancestral whenua, and can foster greater economic independence and community resilience for these communities.